History of the American Economy 12th Edition by Gary M. Walton – Test Bank
Labor during the Early Industrial Period
1. Before 1860, most of the U.S. population lived _____ and most workers _____ .
a. in small to medium cities; were members of trade guilds
b. in rural areas; were self-employed
c. in large cities; were self-employed
d. in large cities; were employed in mills and factories
ANSWER: b. in rural areas; were self-employed
2. In the antebellum period, the largest source of employment was:
a. the agricultural sector.
b. the manufacturing sector.
c. government (local, state and federal)
d. the service industry.
ANSWER: a. the agricultural sector.
3. Between 1820 and 1860, in the U.S.,
a. real wages rose.
b. unskilled workers’ earnings fell relative to skilled workers’ earnings.
c. fertility rates fell.
d. the number of self-employed workers fell.
e. All of the above.
ANSWER: e. All of the above.
4. The population of the United States grew _____ during the first half of the 19th century.
c. about 3 percent per year
d. about 6 percent per year
ANSWER: c. about 3 percent per year
5. The U.S. population growth rate in the first half of the 19th century was
a. about the same as that of most European countries.
b. lower than that of most European countries.
c. much higher than that of most European countries.
d. sporadic—sometimes high and sometimes low.
ANSWER: c. much higher than that of most European countries.
6. Yasukichi Yasuba’s research suggests that the decline in the U.S. fertility rate in the antebellum period was due to
a. rising land prices.
b. people marrying later in life.
c. rising manufacturing wages.
d. a high percentage of young males and a low percentage of young females in the population.
ANSWER: a. rising land prices.
7. U.S. immigration rates were particularly high from
a.1800 to 1815.
b.1820 to 1825.
c.1830 to 1840.
d.1845 to 1860.
ANSWER: d. 1845 to 1860.
8. The high period of immigration in the first half of the 19th century was caused by
a. the Irish potato famine.
b. political unrest in Europe.
c. political unrest in China.
d. Only a and b are correct.
e. None of the above are correct.
ANSWER: d. Only a and b are correct.
9. Data on Northeastern manufacturing firms show that firm size (number of workers per firm) increased for _________________ between 1820 and 1860.
a. mechanized industries
b. non-mechanized industries
c. mechanized and non-mechanized industries
d. only the textile industry
ANSWER: c. mechanized and non-mechanized industries
10. Between 1810 and 1860 the number of workers in manufacturing
c. increased fivefold.
d. increased tenfold.
e. increased twentyfold.
ANSWER: e. increased twentyfold.