Introduction to Learning And Behavior 4th Edition By Russell A. Powell – Test Bank
CHAPTER 11: Observational Learning and
Observational or Social Learning
Contagious Behavior and Stimulus Enhancement
Observational Learning in Classical Conditioning
Observational Learning in Operant Conditioning
Social Learning and Aggression
Definitions and Characteristics
Some Disadvantages of Rule-Governed Behavior
Personal Rules in Self-Regulation
Explanation of Opening Scenario
Advice columns can be viewed as providing readers with a set of rules about how to manage their relationship difficulties. Unfortunately, rules have their drawbacks, one being that behavior that is controlled by rules may be insensitive to the actual contingencies within that environment. In terms of relationships, this may mean that the person acts in accordance with the rules they have been given rather than in accordance with the actual needs of his or her partner. As noted in the Advice for the Lovelorn column in this chapter, this might cause significant problems in a relationship.
Dr. Dee Assignment (See Chapter 1 in this manual for a sample set of instructions.)
I. Dear Dr. Dee,
My boyfriend’s boxing coach is terribly old-fashioned and convinced him to take a vow of abstinence for the two weeks prior to a big fight. And darned if he isn’t keeping his word. If he really loved me, how could he do that? I know for a fact that one of his training partners didn’t hold out for a week with his girlfriend. I’m starting to think I’ve got a real dud here. Any advice?
II. Dear Dr. Dee,
My girlfriend, Julie has changed the way she treats me recently. She used to be really sweet and we would discuss major decisions, like a team. Now she just bosses me around! Julie’s best friend is really bossy with her husband, and he does everything she tells him to do. I mean, it seems to work for them, but I can’t stand it. How can I get her to treat me with respect, the way she used to?
I. Adrienne doesn’t appreciate that her boyfriend (Rocky?) may have a history of being reinforced for strong Say-Do correspondence, which allows him to exert a good deal of control over his own behavior. Thus, his actions may provide little indication of how much he loves her. In fact, given his ability to control his impulses, he might very well be a great catch who will go far in life. (463-465)
II. Julie may have learned vicariously, from observing her friend’s relationship, that being bossy is an effective and appropriate way of interacting with a romantic partner. Although social learning is an efficient and powerful method of changing behavior, continued performance of socially-learned behavior depends on whether we are personally punished or reinforced for that same behavior. In order to prevent being treated in this fashion any longer, End-of-my-rope should make it clear that he prefers consultation, rather than dictatorship. In that way, Julie’s bossy behavior will not be reinforced, so she will be less likely to continue. (440-444)
Observational (Social) Learning: http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/soccog/soclrn.html
This site provides a brief overview of the general principles of observational learning from a social learning perspective.
“Transmission of Aggression Through Imitation of Aggressive Models” by Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross, and Sheila A. Ross (1961): http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Bandura/bobo.htm
This article describes the famous “bobo doll” study by Bandura and his colleagues
(from York University Classics in the History of Psychology).
Conditioning kids to kill: http://www.killology.com/art_beh_conditioning.htm
Follow the link to an article discussing the effects of violence in the media on children.
Violent video games: Myths, facts and unanswered questions: http://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2003/10/anderson.aspx
This article describes decades of research about media violence (including video game violence) and its effect on children.
“The Energies of Men” by William James (1907): http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/James/energies.htm
A passage from this article is quoted on page 442 of the text. For those who may be interested, here is the complete article. (From York University Classics in the History of Psychology.)